Transient Causes

Transient causes of incontinence are factors outside of the lower urinary tract, that can either cause or worsen incontinence. Because transient causes often respond to conservative treatment, identifying and reversing them should be the first step in any attempt to improve continence status.

Based on the information obtained during your discussion with Mr Scott and through physical examination, what would you identify as possible transient causes of incontinence?
Click on the factors you feel are relevant to obtain feedback. There are a number of possibilities. Can you identify all of them?

Use of hydrochlorothiazide
Peripheral oedema
Constipation and stool impaction
Fluid intake
Poor diabetic control