Managing the pain and stiffness of Mrs Scott’s arthritis may well improve her experience of functional incontinence by helping her to move around more easily.

The physiotherapy assessment reveals that Mrs Scott has significant joint changes indicative of osteoarthritis particularly affecting her hands, shoulders, ankles and knees. She has reduced grip strength in both hands and hip and knee extensor strength is diminished (unable to rise from a standard chair without using her arms to push off). Joint range is restricted in shoulders, knees, ankles, cervical and lumbar spine.

Mrs Scott is encouraged to maintain her participation in physical activity, particularly water based activity that facilitates a greater joint range of movement.  Light weight bearing activity will prevent further muscle loss and increase bone strength. Mrs Scott is slightly overweight and may benefit in speaking with a dietitian. A reduction in body mass may alleviate strain on her joints and therefore lessen the symptoms of arthritis.

She will continue to take paracetamol, as needed, for pain management.